Academic Editing

I have twenty years of experience helping graduate students and academics express their ideas clearly and cogently. Whether it’s offering a line edit, revising for stylistic consistency, or delving into issues of organization, I offer useful revisions and feedback that improve the clarity and cohesiveness of your writing. And regardless of where you are in the process or the deadline you’re up against, I can help you put the pieces in place to produce a final product you’ll be proud to put your name on.

 
 
 

dissertation sample Before Editing

… Involvement has been defined as the investment of “physical and psychological energy” (p. 518) and can range from planning an event on campus to studying for a midterm exam.  Astin also observed that involvement varies with different experiences and at different times. I n my research study, I incorporated Astin’s five components of student involvement theory, using them to organize my field notes, follow-up interviews, and discussions on key themes that emerged from the initial interviews. Astin’s Student Involvement Theory posits that quantitative and qualitative components of involvement can be reflected through test scores, hours studying, and number of involvement activities, as well as the value of friendships, group interactions, and relationships with faculty members.  According to Astin, a student’s level of involvement reflects student development outcomes:

Students’ level of involvement determines the outcome. For example, students who overextend themselves in involvement activities might experience a negative outcome.  They may ignore academic work or other priorities as a result of focusing too much on those involvement activities. In addition, institutional commitment to increasing student involvement must be evident (pp. 521).

What is more, a higher quality and quantity of student commitment leads to compounding social and academic benefits:

As students spend more time within the university community, they have greater opportunities to interact with faculty, join student groups, become involved in government, or join a sorority or fraternity—all of which contribute greatly to the likelihood of students returning another year and developing on a personal level (pp. 558).

Astin argues that levels of student involvement directly impact motivation to remain in school, apply for graduate or professional schools, and excel academically (Astin, 1984).

dissertation sample After Editing

… Astin (1984) has a broad conception of student involvement. He notes the differences using quantitative and qualitative measures, pointing to test scores, hours studying, and number of involvement activities, as well as friendships, group interactions, and relationships with faculty members. A student’s level of involvement leads to different developmental outcomes, with higher levels of student commitment leading to compounding social and academic benefits:

As students spend more time within the university community, they have greater opportunities to interact with faculty, join student groups, become involved in government, or join a sorority or fraternity—all of which contribute greatly to the likelihood of students returning another year and developing on a personal level. (Astin, 1984, p. 558)

Astin argues that the degree of student involvement directly impacts their motivation to remain in school, apply for graduate or professional schools, and excel academically (Astin, 1984). Yet he acknowledges that involvement is not an unalloyed good:

… students who overextend themselves in involvement activities might experience a negative outcome.  They may ignore academic work or other priorities as a result of focusing too much on those involvement activities. (p. 521)

His theory offers a useful framework for analyzing and interpreting the data gathered from student interviews. In my research study, I employed Astin’s student involvement theory to organize my field notes, structure follow-up interviews, and offer a framework for identifying key themes that emerged.

Your comments were spot on and anticipated those of my advisor, and your edits helping me transition between topics was exactly what he was looking for.
— Katherine K.

article Sample BEFORE EDITING

It is not uncommon to encounter claims that the neoclassical school of economics it “naturalizes” the market.  More specifically, the neoclassical school is sometimes said to overlook the institutional character of markets. Instead, so the allegation runs, it treats them as a outgrowth of natural forces, so the criticism goes, or regards any such institutional character as merely secondary to the study of the universal man, homo economicus (see, e.g., Milonakis & Fine, 2009, p. 98); (Dixon & Wilson, 2012, p. 20). A similar critique runs that this absence of institutional awareness may be symptomatic of the so-called “physics envy” of neoclassical thought (Mirowski, 1989.) to a greater or lesser extent economists make these sorts of criticisms, however, do not apply neatly and unequivocally to one of the seminal of neoclassical thought thinkers in neoclassical thought, namely, Léon Walras. Rather, Walras’ own relationship to these questions is more complex.  This essay will articulate the precise nature of this complexity, and its implications.  In particular, we will see that Walras argues that (a) market processes govern a “natural” phenomenon (specifically, that of exchange-value) and that, (b) the market itself as an institution is “artificial.” I want to argue that the former assertion undermines the latter, while also undermining Warlas’ attempt to evaluate the institution of the market from a normative perspective.

article Sample AFTER EDITING

A not uncommon critique of the neoclassical school of economics is that it “naturalizes” the market by overlooking its institutional character. Treating markets as the outgrowth of natural forces, so the criticism goes, it regards any such institutional character as merely secondary to the study of the universal man homo economicus (see, e.g., Dixon & Wilson, 2012, p. 20; Milonakis & Fine, 2009, p. 98). This absence of institutional awareness (it is further alleged) may be symptomatic of the so-called “physics envy” of neoclassical thought (Mirowski, 1989). While this critique captures to a greater or lesser extent a number of neoclassical economists in its net, one of the seminal figures of neoclassical thought might at first glance appear to slip through. Léon Walras adopts a nuanced stance with regard to these issues, arguing that (a) market processes govern a “natural” phenomenon (specifically that of exchange-value) while at the same time asserting that (b) the market itself as an institution is “artificial.” Nevertheless, I will contend in this essay that a closer look at Walras’s views reveals a thinker caught in a net of his own making: that the former assertion not only undermines the latter, but in fact undercuts his attempt to evaluate the institution of the market from a normative perspective.

Through his comments and suggestions, Dr. Pook helped me see how to make what I was saying match what I thinking.
— Oscar R.

White Paper sample Before editing

The promise of the research practices discussed above has begun to be realized in six high schools in the northeastern region of the United States that now claim higher-than-average EL high school graduation and postsecondary entry rates (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 2017). While the six vary in terms of the size of their EL populations, all are small schools with high percentages of their students (80 to 100 percent) qualifying for free or reduced-price lunch a commonly used metric of school socioeconomic status. Students in all six schools (five from New York and one from Massachusetts) had to pass a demanding set of tests to graduate from high school. A 2015 study found while the schools didn’t have a common curriculum, they did share several emphases (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 2017)…

white paper sample After editing

The promise of best practices for EL instruction reviewed above is not just theoretical.  Six high schools in the northeast United States have implemented the “language as action” approach to EL instruction with promising results (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 2017). While the six schools (five from New York and one from Massachusetts) vary in terms of the size of their EL populations, all have over 80 percent of their students qualifying for free or reduced-price lunch (a commonly used metric of socioeconomic status). To graduate, each school requires students (including ELs) to pass a demanding set of tests, yet these schools have higher-than-average EL high school graduation and post-secondary entry rates.

What was their secret? While the schools did not have a common curriculum, they did share several emphases that reflect both the policies and instructional methodologies advocated above for EL instruction (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 2017):